“Leadership is an art and management is a science”
“Leadership is more flexible and management is more structured”
Most of the people always confuse between management and leadership, they think it they are the same in general however; there are some areas of similarities and differences for management and leadership.
From the research of Zhao and Xu, students from ier institute, stated that the improvement of leadership behavior can not separated from the goals of management activities and practicing. (Ire-institute, 2012) Nevertheless, there are blurred points that show the differences between management and leadership. According to Dr. Sandra L. Torres research, a short common definition of leadership can be “ The ability to influence others” On the other hand for management could be “ Performing operational tasks such as the supervision of others” (Dr. Sandra L., 2013)
In terms of the definition, Leadership means the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others members in the organisation to contribute toward the effectiveness and successful. While Management is about directing and controlling a group of one or more people or entities for the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing that group towards accomplishing a goal. (Diffen, 2012)
FOLLOWERS VS. SUBORDINATES
“ Managers have subordinates but Leaders have followers” this quote is incredibly interesting. For manager tend to be one of the most important in an organisation who has to control their subordinators with the authority. On the other side, to lead is to have followers, think about making a big campaign, it consists of leader who lead the event also it is not going to work without followers who support the event. The leaders with strong attitude and personality have the ability to control and attract people to the same track as them.
Which personal style should managers adopt to ensure success? What is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates? These questions have been extensively researched and debated over the last century, and while the general consensus has moved away from ‘command and control’ to management and leadership towards more consultative and participative approaches, there is no single ideal, as the best approach may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics (CMI 2013).
From the discussion above, the personal style is really crucial in order to find yourself. No matter which positions or roles are you in; the most important is spirit and how you act in the reality. Hence, the action and your personal style when you treat or be with your colleagues, subordinates, or team members are some of stuffs that can judge who you are either manager or leader. (Managers, 2008)
In business society these days, there are innumerable leadership theories and models that are extremely useful for both organisation and individuals. (Marc A., 2014)
Contingency theories of leadership includes four majors models which are:
- Favourability of leadership situation – Fiedler
- Quality and acceptance of leader’ decision – Vroom and Yetton and Vroom and Jago
- Path-goal theory – House, and House and Dessler
- Readiness level of followers – Hersey and Blanchard.
Focusing on Path-goal theory, which identifies four different types of leadership behaviour. The theory said that leadership behaviour is a motivation of subordinates. (Mullins 2013: 383)
– Directive leadership
– Supportive leadership
– Participative leadership
– Achievement-oriented leadership
In different types of leadership has its own advantages, it is really depend on leaders or managers pick up in which situations.
Further than that, Rensis Likert, who conducted research on human behaviour within organisations, identified four major systems of management styles which are:
– The exploitive-authoritative system
– The benevolent-authoritative system
– The consultative system
– The participative-group system (Training&developmentsolutions, 2004)
Comparing two theories, there are some similar areas that showed people characteristics in organisations, which we can identify that which types are they either leaders or managers.
After has done the research and clearly understand the similarities and differences between managers and leaderships, I would rather be a person to be managed due to the fact that my personality need a person who push me to get the work done. I have such a very low level of self-assessment. From my point of view, managers are being able to help if needed more than leaders. Leader is more likely to command by using his or her authority, however manager is controlling his or her subordinates so, I would rather be a person who is managed by reasonable and supportive manager.
Watch this! He is the kind of person who I want to work with and I believe that people in his company are cheerful and happy to work with him!
Mullins, L.J. (2013). Management and Organisational Behaviour. United Kingdom: FT Publishing International.
Dr. Sandra L. Torres. 2014. Leadership vs. Management: Differences and Similarities. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.creditunionbusiness.com/2013/09/19/leadership-vs-management-differences-and-similarities/. [Accessed 04 March 14].
Marc A. Price. 2010. Effective Leadership Theories in Business. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.expertbusinessadvice.com/leadership/effective-leadership-theories-in-business-55.html. [Accessed 08 March 14].
Trainanddevelop. 2014. Rensis Likert and Management Styles. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.trainanddevelop.co.uk/article/rensis-likert-and-management-styles-a174. [Accessed 08 March 14].